The Cairns Day 16 – 2019

One of the tour groups with UHI MRes student Kevin guiding.

Site Director Martin Carruthers takes up the story of the successful Open Day at the excavation….

Well today was the open day on site and the decision we made to slightly postpone the open day really paid-off as we basked in sunshine and blue skies all day!

Fiona overseeing some actual metalworking

The visitors seemed to really enjoy the experience of making their way around the site, witnessing the massive broch and the other buildings, hearing from us about the findings and looking at some of the fascinating artefacts; pottery, stone tools, metalwork, glass beads and fragments, and large volumes of animal bone. As well as showing the fruits of our labours, we also had a demonstration of a little light metalworking going on from Fiona Sanderson, who showed our students and other diggers how to go about it, and our own Carnegie Trust scholarship student Paul was also performing some experimental metalworking!

Lots of the team were involved in the open day, leading tours, and explaining what is happening across the site however, even in the midst of the festive atmosphere of the open day excavation progress continued.

Revealing the further extent of Structure O

In Bobby’s area the northern wall of Structure O was further traced and its outer face, in particular, came nicely into view, reminding us of the solid, double-faced nature of this walling and the substantial upstanding building it must have belonged to.

Jenny with the saddle quern rubber, showing its grinding surface, which after use as the top stone of the quern seems to had facets removed to providers scrapers (Skaill knives) for butchery or skinning

In the Southwest extension the last remnant of the special deposit that had included the sheep skull and other items was lifted allowing us to lift and look at the saddle quern rubber stone. It is an object with a more complex history than we thought.  Initially used as a top-stone to grind the grain against a saddle quern, it also shows signs of having been subsequently used as a mortar to crush substances. Finally it looks like large flakes were removed from its original grinding surface.  These may have then been used as ‘Skaill knives’, a form of butchery or skinning scarping tool, or the flaking may have been intended to remove the old working surface from the rubber, a phenomenon sometimes seen in prehistoric querns and quern rubbers!

The saddle quern rubber in situ.

Finally, inside the broch, recording was under way as we prepare for the end of the week and closing down the site.  Prior to this though we still have a few days digging work left and we’ll keep you informed of what we find!

In the broch today
The team relaxing in the beautiful weather at tea break

Martin Carruthers, Site Director, The Cairns

The Cairns Days 14 & 15 – 2019

Bronze object from the floor of the southern room in the broch

The weather conditions at The Cairns this week have been appalling, so Site Director Martin Carruthers has combined Day 14 & 15 into one blog post….

Well what can we say- this blog incorporates two days of work on site as we’ve been rather truncated and interrupted by recent weather conditions.  Firstly, high winds, and then persistent rain have had an impact on our ability to sustain fully productive excavation across both days.

Looking out over the broch towards the North Sea, shrouded in cloud

Nevertheless, some very interesting insights and results have been forthcoming from the site. In the broch the work has continued to reveal more details of the early occupation. Therese and team have observed a very densely rich crushed shell deposit around what we think are the primary floor surfaces.  This is especially the case in a zone tucked between the western wall face and the edge of the substantial floor slabs. This shell material may be the earliest deposit that we have reached so far in the broch, perhaps even dating to the construction of the massive building, or part of a foundation deposit of some significance.  It shows that even once we have dealt with the ‘primary’ floor slabs in the area (which will be next season) we still have very interesting things in store to find out about the early moments of the broch’s life!

Elsewhere in the broch Yesterday, work recommenced in the Southern quadrant/room.  This began with a gentle clean over the area to remind ourselves of where we left off in the previous season.  Well so much for that simple recognition exercise! Within minutes Mika, one of our Leiden University interns had discovered another little copper alloy (bronze) object.  A roughly ring-shaped object.  This time this piece appears slightly D-shaped and may be some sort of fitting, or even a contorted pin fragment rather than a ring like the one found earlier in the season within the Western room.

Animal skull, bones and saddle quern rubber stone

Outside the broch in the Southwest extension, Rick’s team have also been “coming up with the goods”.  You may recall that this area encompasses a part of the village settlement, and a portion of the inner ditch that formed the enclosure that once surrounded the site.  Rick’s team have been busy re-writing what we thought was going on here.  On the one hand they have established that quite a lot of what we thought of as the natural glacial till is in fact redeposited, slumped over, or actively employed as a building material by Iron Age builders.  The result is that the village building, Structure J, which had the appearance of a rather compact, and neatly defined kidney- shaped building has expanded exponentially to form a rather massive, much more complex, multi-roomed building.  The net result is that the broch-period village on this SW side, which had appeared confined to small belt of features hugging the broch outer wall face is now much larger and impressive! 

A little ‘treat’ for us in this area came when Jenny, one of our UHI excavation module students, was working on the rubble in-fill behind Structure J. This is an area probably related to the foundation of Structure J.  A cache of animal bone and other items seem to have been deposited in the upper part of the rubble. There was an inverted sheep skull, several femurs, some worked deer antler, and a very nice rubber stone for a saddle quern.  This is one more instance of apparently special deposits made at the site relating to the foundation or decommissioning of major buildings and features during the Iron Age.

Trench area M & Q

In trench-areas M & Q on the Northern slopes of the site, Bobby’ team have been doing great work also on the village buildings here.  Almost everyday the substantial nature of the remains there seem to get larger, more massive, and more complex.  There are now myriad walls relating to rectangular, cellular and circular buildings.  Some of the walls are double faced and substantially built in a style that may make them contemporary with the broch, others are single-faced revetments that have been added over time.  It’s a complicated and not immediately clear area to resolve, but this complexity will, ultimately, result in a lovely detailed story of the development of the settlement.  For now, a clearer picture of the interconnected nature of the broch village is emerging with passages, thresholds and wall-piers serving to link some of the buildings and show how movement was achieved between and around this important part of the village complex.

Holly working at the souterrain

Finally, and by no means least Holly has been busy, as ever, excavating and sampling the souterrain to the east of the broch.  This underground passageway has a series of in-fill deposits present but is now resolving on to floor surfaces and we hope to be able to recover deposits that relate to the early use of this enigmatic passageway to the past!

If you’d like to see some of these things for yourself we’ll be hosting an open day at the site on Monday the 8th of July from 11am to 4pm!  Please do feel free to join us on site.

University of the Highlands and Islands Archaeologists Lead in International Climate Change Action

Erosion at Skara Brae

The Climate Risk Assessment for Heart of Neolithic Orkney World Heritage Property Report, was published this week and launched at the UNESCO World Heritage Committee meeting held on Tuesday 2 July 2019 in Baku, Azerbaijan.

The report was co-authored by University of the Highlands and Islands Archaeology Institute Director Professor Jane Downes and Orkney Islands Council Regional Archaeologist and UHI researcher Julie Gibson.

The Climate Vulnerability Index assessment report was produced following a workshop, co-hosted by UHI Archaeology Institute, in Orkney earlier this year to trial the Climate Vulnerability Index (CVI) framework, which assesses the threat that climate change poses to all types of heritage sites. Supported by University of the Highlands and Islands in partnership with Historic Environment Scotland (HES), James Cook University (JCU, Australia), Orkney Islands Council, the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) and ICOMOS Climate Change and Heritage Working Group, the workshop brought together leading international heritage professionals and climate scientists and islanders whose lives and businesses are bound up with the World Heritage site.

Skara Brae, Orkney. Photo: Adam Lee

The CVI approach examined both the vulnerability of the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the Orkney World Heritage site – the basis for its selection as a World Heritage site – as well as community vulnerability, which explored the economic, social and cultural importance of the site for the local community and the potential impact of any loss, as well as its resilience to climate change risks.

The Heart of Neolithic Orkney was the first cultural World Heritage site to undergo CVI assessment, following an initial trial of the tool at Shark Bay in Western Australia. The report recommends wider application of the CVI methodology, both in Scotland and internationally, highlighting its significant potential to enhance understanding and support adaptation to address climate change challenges at World Heritage sites worldwide.

Professor Jane Downes commented that, “We are pleased that the University of the Highlands and Islands Archaeology Institute has been involved with the international team in this crucial work to develop a method of assessing damage to economically vital world heritage sites. This report highlights the very real threats to heritage that climate change brings”

Julie Gibson said “The report starkly highlights the severe threats of a changing climate to Orkney’s World Heritage Site – through sea level rise, changes in storm intensity and frequency, and increased rainfall.  The workshop method provides a means of understanding how different communities in the world will relate to the impacts of climate change on their heritage. Hopefully for Orkney, our potential to adapt will be fulfilled”

Ewan Hyslop, Head of Technical Research and Science at HES, said: “It was a great honour for the Heart of Neolithic Orkney World Heritage site to be chosen to pilot the CVI methodology, and we’re pleased to now bring those findings to the international stage during the World Heritage Committee meeting. While the findings of the report reiterate the severity of climate change risk to the World Heritage site in Orkney, there are also positives to take away in terms of the resilience of the site and the wider community to manage the impacts of climate change in the future.”

Adam Markham, Deputy Director of the Climate and Energy Program at UCS and a co-developer of the CVI said: “Climate change is the fastest growing threat to World Heritage sites. Sites worldwide are being damaged and degraded by melting glaciers, rising seas, intensifying weather events, worsening droughts and longer wildfire seasons, yet there is no standardized way to assess vulnerability. The CVI is being developed to fill that gap, so that experts and site managers can use local knowledge and the best available science to determine the risk level, and then take the appropriate action to protect them.”

UHI Archaeology Institute Team Return to Skaill Farm

View looking across the Skaill Farmstead site

Next week commencing 8th July 2019, a team from the University of the Highlands and Islands Archaeology Institute will return to dig at the fascinating Skaill Farmstead site on the Orkney island of Rousay.

The team of UHI students, Rousay residents and volunteers will once again be led by Dr Ingrid Mainland, Dr Jen Harland, Dr Sarah Jane Gibbon and Dan Lee from the UHI Archaeology Institute. They will together continue the project to investigate this farm and settlement mound which may have been inhabited for over 1000 years.

UHI Student Sam Golder at the Skaill Farm dig, Rousay

The dig is part of the Landscapes of Change – Archaeologies of the Rousay Clearances and Westness Estate project which is now in its 5th season. The aim of the project is to explore the farmstead at Skaill from the Norse period to its abandonment in the nineteenth century. The present farm at Skaill dates to the 18-19th centuries and was part of the Rousay clearances during the mid-19th century; however the name Skaill suggests the site was home to a Norse hall or drinking hall, and was a high status site. Westness is mentioned in Orkneyinga saga as the home of Sigurd, a powerful chieftain, so it is likely that a Norse settlement is located somewhere at Skaill. Earlier structures have been found below the present farm last year, and this season we plan to explore more of the Norse and possible Viking phases of the site.

The site is open to the public from 8th July to 26th July and everyone is welcome to visit. Tours are available and archaeologists will be on site most weekdays. Open Day is on Sunday 21st July 2019.

The dig is located on the island of Rousay near the Midhowe Broch. Park in the layby for the broch and walk down the hill until you reach the sea. Turn left and follow the coast until you reach us at Skaill Farmstead! You will need to take the ferry from Orkney Mainland. Check out the ferry timetable before you go.

Check out previous blog posts on the site here.

The Cairns Day 13 – 2019

An aerial view of The Cairns site using drone photography by Bobby Friel @takethehighview

Day 13 turned out to be unlucky for us as the weather closed in and torrential rain set in, meaning that we had to leave site early. There is always tomorrow!

So today on site we were subject to some less than conducive weather- with squally rain and wind hampering our activities. Across all of the active areas of the site we are now working in fairly sensitive areas so eventually, when the rain really set in for the day, we had little option but to pack up and head off.  Therefore, today’s blog is a photo montage of events and activities from earlier today and yesterday….

The substantial early paving within the West Room of the broch
Mika excavating a pottery spread up against the broch wall in the West Room
Working in Structures Q and R in the village
Working on the rubble in-fill of Structure O in the village settlement

Martin Carruthers, Site Director.

The Cairns Day 12 – 2019

In the foreground, the rubble in-filling Structure O outside the broch

We are pleased to welcome international students from around the world at The Cairns and today it is the turn of Mickey Van Lit from Leiden University to walk us through the day at The Cairns……

Mooing cows and squeaking wheelbarrows shape our background music. The scrape of trowels against stones is like a war drum, urging us on to keep working. Hoodies are taken off. Five minutes later, hoodies are put back on. Rain nor wind nor sun can stop us from doing what we do. But what exactly are we doing?

The village buildings to the north of Structure O

At first glance, the area I have been working on – and am still working on – might seem a bit boring. There is a whole lot of rubble, and even more dirt. Yet, with a bit of singing, talking and the occasional ray of sun, it is quite a nice area to work on.

It is located right at the entrance of the broch, with only the souterrain between the broch and ‘my’ patch. On the right, there is a wall that seems to dive underneath our area. When we started two weeks ago, the area looked quite different than it looks now. Near to no stones were visible. Along with four others, I have been trowelling the dirt away to try and uncover the rubble. Underneath this rubble are the remains of at least one wall, but hopefully more.

A pottery rim, one of many pieces coming from the site at the moment

When trowelling, we quickly learned to squat while trowelling, as the rocks dug into our knees whenever we would kneel. During the second week, voids started to appear. According to Bobby, we should be happy with these voids, as they signalled that we were getting close to the big rubble. Unfortunately, the voids meant that there were no stable rocks to stand on, as everything was wobbly or crumbling. It was quite like playing Twister. But Bobby was right (of course) and we soon got down to the bigger rocks that we were hoping to find.

Closer to the trench edge, the soil was trampled by us, and we could not get through with our trowels. We got out the big tools: mattocks. Within a day, we had cracked down upon the bigger rubble there as well. In fact, the first rock we found was massive, and it took us a while to find the end of it. Finally, after two weeks and one day, we were able to take the obligatory pictures. While I am writing this blog, my co-workers of this area are removing the rubble on top. When that has been done, we will find the rest of the wall that ducked beneath our area.

Vivid floor deposits in the southeast room of the broch and the dark stony area of the hearth in the background

Even though the work appeared to be a bit monotonous, we had a lot of fun. My team had a tendency to sing, if only two lines before we switched to a new topic of conversation. The conversations consisted mostly of nonsensical facts and awful jokes – you know, the interesting kind of conversations. Every once in a while, Holly would pop up from the souterrain to make a comment, which of course only added to the fun. We have gotten quite good at multitasking: talk and dig, people, talk and dig.

Todays blogger Mickey writing the blog in the site office

To end this blog on a (slightly) more serious note, it has to be said that this site is brilliant, and the people just as much. No matter the weather or the hard work, everyone is enthusiastic and interested in what we are doing. Therefore, I propose a round of applause for everyone that has been working here. Looks great, keep going, guys!

The mooing cows in the field next to The Cairns

Thanks to Mickey Van Lit, Leiden University Archaeology Student

The Cairns Day 10 – 2019

Looking across part of the village settlement with Structure Q in the foreground

Today, University of the Highlands and Islands Archaeology Institute student, Aime Sohkhlet writes our blog…

For most of my time on site, I have been working on area Q and as the two weeks passed by, I was slowly able to see new and great developments throughout.

From a levelled area of soil to emerging rocks, bones and walls, area Q now has character and definition through all that we have uncovered. Day 10 at the Cairns has been quite a productive day. With no rain and relatively no sun, I think it was a perfect day to work and bask in the fog that sheltered us from any harsh working conditions, considering the task that was given to my group today.

A saddle quern and red deer antler discovered in one corner of Structure Q during cleaning the building for photography

The task set for my final day on site was simple but equally important as the rest of the work involved in understanding the lives of Iron Age people. We were tasked with photo cleaning area Q specifically context (1851) and getting it picture perfect! This process in my opinion might have been the most difficult thing I’ve done so far (and this is saying a lot because fieldwork is hard work all around haha…)

Photo cleaning is an aspect of fieldwork that I am now appreciating. The most important thing that my supervisor got me to think about is presentation and perspective. The skill of presenting our work through a single photograph not only involved our hard work of cleaning the site but it also depended on Mother Nature. Just picture us all praying for a cloud to pass in front of the sun everyday so that our pictures weren’t over exposed by the harsh sun haha… the presence of the fog today was a great bonus really. 

Today’s blogger Aime ‘photo-cleaning’ in Structure Q

A single shot is supposed to be able to tell an observer a story. A picture can serve a thousand words and because of this, we had to meticulously clean and present our site in such a way that even a person with just little knowledge about The Cairns would be able to understand the context and what our aims were for that particular part of it all. Every angle and every shot was taken and recorded and through this process, we are able to see progression on site and present it to everyone else with the confidence that everything was, and I say this with much joy haha… Picture Perfect!

Fieldwork demands dedication and through every task that was given to me and the group that I was in, I think we learnt to dedicate ourselves toward hard work and something close to perfection in everything that we do and because of this I think my first two weeks of excavation (EVER) at the Cairns, was a success!

Thanks to Aime Sohkhlet, UHI, BA Archaeology Student

The Cairns Day 8 – 2019

Looking along the soutearrain passage as it makes a right-angle turn and enters the broch entrance passageway, which was itself reused as the chamber of the souterrain

Today is Day Eight and Area Supervisor Therese McCormick continues the story at The Cairns…

Cool and calm weather today at The Cairns and work across the whole site continues steadily. Inside the broch, we’ve been working on some of the floor deposits that will allow us to characterise how the internal spaces within the broch were used throughout its lifetime. 

The western room of the broch interior with floor deposits gridded-out for excavation and sampling

Calum, Connor, Mika and Lorna have been making great progress in the north-west quadrant of the broch interior, where you might remember from previous seasons, a series of hearths and associated layers of paving and burnt material have been being steadily uncovered. So far, three large flagstone hearths have been excavated, each one revealing the next underneath. As each flagstone deteriorated and cracked from heat, the inhabitants replaced it with another, and the surface surrounding the hearths was built up in concert with this. So each of these layers represents its own phase of activity within the broch, meaning the inhabitants have helpfully left us a nice sequential story to uncover.

Heat affected centrepiece of the western room of the broch

This season, we’ve uncovered a mounded area of clay, which seems to be packing stones which may represent a more formal hearth arrangement preceding those we’ve already removed. We should be uncovering this feature in the near future, so we look forward to bringing you an update!

The team have been working their way through the layers overlying this promising feature, using a grid to systematically remove the deposits for sampling. All of the sampled material will be sorted through and chemically analysed, which allows us to build a detailed picture of what kinds of activity took place in this area – and how this part of the broch was used over time. This is also revealing a further layer of clay-packed stones in the vicinity of the hearth, possibly another episode of paving. The process has also revealed some interesting artefacts, including a partial stone lamp and several pieces of pottery. The deposits have also been rich in animal bone as well as charcoal, giving us some useful dating evidence for the hearth sequences. 

Gary’s sondage up against the broch wall-face showing a riot of vivid orange and yellow clays

Meanwhile, Gary has begun a sondage at the western edge of the broch interior, between the mysterious pit he uncovered and excavated last year and the broch wall. This is already proving very illuminating, giving us some hints about the nature of the pit which now looks to have been clay-lined. It also shows a thick layer of orange clay up against the broch wall. As it progresses, the sondage will provide a useful window into what we can expect to encounter as we take the broch interior down to its primary surface. 

The souterrain passage gridded-out during excavation

Just through the broch entrance, Holly and Sara have been busy sampling the floor deposits in the souterrain, hoping to establish whether these represent primary or secondary phases of use. The area they’re working on includes a greasy deposit towards the entrance, which may be associated with a deliberate pouring of liquids into the souterrain, in a potentially ritually significant act! 

Outside the broch, the team in Trench Q have been busily taking down rubble deposits to reveal more of the extra-mural village buildings and establish their relationship the main broch structure. 

In the south-west extension, the team are further defining the external structures visible on this side of the broch’s outer wall as well as uncovering potential new features and investigating the deposits revealed in the primary cut for the broch itself.

All this progress bodes well for the weeks ahead, so please stay tuned to see what rewards it all yields!

Thanks to Therese McCormick, Area Supervisor

The Cairns Day 7 – 2019

Looking across the main trench to Windwick Bay in the East

Today it is the turn of Lorna Morrison, University of the Highlands and Islands Archaeology student to write the daily blog at The Cairns dig….

Hi Lorna here- the oldest undergrad. student on site. As a UHI student I have two weeks here on my ‘Excavation Skills’ module.

Weather today – breezy and sunny at The Cairns, and the ground dries quickly as we work. My first task today was to clean around some of the orthostats in the Broch inner passageway to prepare them for recording. A couple of small finds popped up – a piece of pot with crimp marks around the base, and some antler. It’s often difficult to tell stone from bone so it all goes into the finds tray for confirmation by finds-meister, Kevin, who keeps us right as to labelling and recording what we see.

Inside the broch today. Big hearth deposits being photographed in the centre of the image

The UHI undergraduate students have been honing their ‘planning’ skills – drawing their areas to scale which is a satisfying, if back-aching process. Mairead and Lucy have enjoyed planning the whole of the top of the SW extension, which includes some revetment, Broch wall and flagstone surface.

Further down the SW extension, the team there have been removing rubbly areas to reveal indications of further extra-mural broch village structures. UHI student Cara found some voids at the end of her trowel which was the start of a reveal of a wall running north to south from structure J – one of the small village buildings – out towards the Broch outer ditch. Volunteers Anthea and Deryck also found an adjoining wall, with a lintel over a void deep enough to swallow a site director’s arm (which it did). This whole area now has several people working to expose the stonework and clear it of rubble. During this, Leiden students Maurits, Solveig and Elisabet have excavated bone fragments and slag (iron-working waste).

In this same corner, UHI student Alana has extended her area between structure J and the souterrain to expose possible corbelling and paving.
The souterrain squad aka Holly and Sara are still sampling on a grid, coming down to more rubbly soil. The souterrain was previously roofed and below where there was an opening in the roof, the squad have excavated a cache of shells.

New walls associated with Structure J emerging today.

Next door, the ‘Rubble Runners’, Connor, Mickey, Robert and Isabelle have cleared a layer of rubble to the south of the Broch entrance, uncovering copious amounts of slag, pot, bone and a worked stone as they work.
Still in area Q, but over towards the broch, Luke, Aime and Hannah are clearing back to see more of the structure underneath their feet.

Volunteers Ursula, Helen and Alan have returned this year and already have made some interesting discoveries. Today an animal skull with teeth is being revealed and has been protected until it can be further examined tomorrow.

Inside the Broch itself, Therese, Calum, Duncan, Mika, Gary have been sampling the current floor layer and cleaning back for photos and recording. Everyone is becoming very fond of their own ‘patch’ on the site, and it’s great to see how it changes as we work. The volunteers that are returning from previous years all comment on how it has changed, and we will miss it when we go, and look forward to following the blog and seeing it again next year.

Thanks to Lorna Morrison, UHI Undergraduate Student

The Cairns Day 6 – 2019

The Cairns from above today

Day Six and more from the trenches at The Cairns….

We began today’s excavation in a warm and wet humidity and as the day went on it got wetter with the winds from the sea.

Today everyone had a chance to work on a few areas across the site. I started the day by continuing my work on the South-West extension where I and other diggers further uncovered the stratigraphy of the natural and clay-silt soils. This also allowed us to reveal more of the possible revetment wall which surrounded the central broch wall.

Anthea and Deryck in the SW extension today

Once the South-West area was cleaned over and ready to be photographed and recorded, I moved to the Northern extension to clear up loose rubble. Our group found a number of patches of shells and bones which were then recorded. 

At last, I returned to the South-West extension where myself and three others dug deeper and tidied up a large area with mattocks, shovels and trowels. During this time we found a lot of bone, teeth and shells which highly suggested a midden. This enabled us to imagine the lives of the Iron Age people and led us to discuss what their diets may have consisted of and where their priorities stood.

The groups I was surrounded by throughout the day seemed to have all found something small whether that would be bones, shells or stone tools, which meant a lot to them, a successful day for all, I’d say.

The little yellow glass bead found by Ursula today, well spotted indeed.

In the grand scheme of discoveries, however, the glass bead that was found slightly South of Structure K in the village settlement, from ashy soils there, must be the find of the day. The bead is a small annular pale yellow one. Ursula found it in the Area Q just to the south of Structure K. This brings the total of glass beads found on site to seven.

A close up on the little glass bead

And a common theme in Archaeology when finding something new, is creating a hypothesis only to discover something an hour later which changes everything. Today this occurred when Anthea discovered what seemed to be a curved wall in the South-West extension of Structure J. The conclusions were looking simple until she discovered there was a hole under the upper course of wall in which she could put her hand and arm in. Now it is up for discussion as a fallen slab, broken wall or cupboard/“cubby-hole”.  Only time spent excavating over the next couple of days will tell…