Nine Possible Bronze Age Figurines Unearthed at Substation Excavation in Orkney?

One of the Figurines unearthed at Finstown Orkney after cleaning. Photo: Orkney.com

A team from ORCA Archaeology has discovered an amazing series of half-metre tall stone-carved objects while completing exploratory archaeological excavations connected with the development of an electrical substation on behalf of SSEN Transmission in Orkney.

In total, nine carved stones have been unearthed in the remains of a structure revealed at the proposed Finstown substation site, after digging through sixty centimetres of midden deposits.

Some of the objects look remarkably like stylised representations of the human form, whilst others look more like stones set upright into the floor of a Bronze Age building excavated by EASE Archaeology at the Links of Noltland, Westray. These may have been used to tie mooring ropes onto, to help hold the roof on.

Two of the figurines before cleaning, Finstown, Orkney. Photo: ORCA Archaeology

The archaeologists working on site uncovered the carved stones scattered around a hearth within the remains of an enigmatic structure that contained three cists, two hearths and a partial ring of holes packed with broken off upstanding stones. Three of the roughly carved figures were also important enough to the people who used the building to be incorporated within the structure of one of the hearths and in the foundations of one of the standing stones. The purpose of the building and how it was used by the inhabitants of this site four thousand years ago is still an enigma.

Dating the necked stones firmly will require further work, since they have also been found on Iron Age sites in Orkney. On initial evidence, the ones from Finstown possibly date to around the Late Neolithic or Early Bronze Age, roughly 2000BC. Identifying the purpose of these stones, and if they are figurines, will also require further work, with a close study for abrasion, wear and any other marks on these anthropomorphic objects.

One of the figurines discovered at Finstown, Orkney after cleaning. Photo: Orkney.com

Professor Colin Richards from the University of the Highlands and Islands Archaeology Institute said, “This is a significant discovery in Orkney and probably within North West Europe. It is very rare to find representations of people in prehistoric Orkney and when found, they are usually individual or in very small groups. If they are figurines, to find nine figures within one structure is very exciting and together with the archaeology found at this site has the potential to add to our understanding of Orcadian society in prehistory.”

One of the figurines in situ next to the hearth, Finstown, Orkney. Photo: ORCA Archaeology

The ORCA Archaeology team were also intrigued to uncover direct signs of people working the land some four thousand years ago. In one of the trenches, long marks were found cut into the clay subsoil, which were made by ards (stone ploughshares) providing us with evidence for prehistoric farming in Orkney. These forms of prehistoric ploughs were constructed of wood with a stone shaped into a rough point placed into the wood to plough the soil ready for planting. The lines cross each other at various angles further suggesting that the ground was cultivated by intensively criss-crossing with the ard point by these early Orkney farmers.

One of the figurines following removal from the ground, but prior to cleaning. Finstown, Orkney. Photo: ORCA Archaeology

The survival of these marks together with the remnants of the Early Neolithic and Bronze Age settlement structures gives us an insight into the prehistoric use of this site over some two thousand years with people living, farming and burying their dead across this windswept hillside.

Ard point marks, Finstown, Orkney. Photo: ORCA Archaeology

Pete Higgins ORCA Archaeology Project Manager continues, “This collaborative project with SSEN gives us the opportunity to examine an important prehistoric site that would otherwise not have been excavated. The exploratory trenches are now recorded and covered over, while the significant artefacts are now cleaned and stored for future study. Discussions will take place on the next steps for the development.”

SSEN Environmental Project Manager, Simon Hall said, “We have been working closely with ORCA Archaeology for the past 18 months while they have undertaken archaeological work at our substation site near Finstown . We are delighted that the team have been able to make such a significant find at the site, hopefully furthering the understanding of Orkney’s rich heritage. We will continue to work closely with ORCA Archaeology and all relevant bodies to ensure this find is appropriately managed for the people of Orkney.”

Details of the ‘heads’ of two figurines unearthed at Finstown Orkney. Photo: ORCA Archaeology

The substation is a critical component of the proposed network reinforcement, which is required to support renewable electricity generators across Orkney looking to connect to the main GB transmission system for the first time.  Its progress, as well as that of the reinforcement programme, remains subject to all planning and regulatory approvals.

For further information on the proposals https://www.ssen-transmission.co.uk/projects/orkney/

Thanks to Orkney.com for the use of their images in this post.

Media contact: Sean Page sean.page@uhi.ac.uk

Ness of Brodgar Success Acknowledged in Scottish Parliament

The debating chamber, Holyrood

The Ness of Brodgar has been congratulated in the Scottish Parliament for its success in the 2019 Shanghai Archaeology Forum Field Discovery Awards.

Many thanks to Orkney MSP Liam McArthur for tabling the motion. This is the second time the joint University of the Highlands and Islands Archaeology Institute and Ness of Brodgar Trust managed project has been acknowledged at Holyrood. The first was in 2011, when the excavation won the Current Archaeology Research Project of the Year.

The motion in full reads…….

Motion S5M-19892: Liam McArthur, Orkney Islands, Scottish Liberal Democrats, Date Lodged: 14/11/2019

That the Parliament congratulates Ness of Brodgar Excavations in Orkney on winning the 2019 Shanghai Archaeology Forum Field Discovery Award from a shortlist of 141 global nominations; notes that this award recognises archaeological excavations that have uncovered major discoveries that significantly advance or alter understanding of the human past; acknowledges that the Orkney site, which is one of the most significant archaeological finds in Western Europe, was nominated by members of the German Archaeological Institute and the University of Cambridge; recognises that the project is managed by the University of Highlands and Islands Archaeology Institute in conjunction with the Ness of Brodgar Trust; congratulates the volunteers and staff, including the site director, Nick Card, on their hard work and achievements in archaeological research being recognised on the global stage; thanks them for furthering knowledge and awareness of Neolithic life in Orkney through their outstanding and innovative efforts, and wishes the project continued success for the 2020 excavation season and beyond.

Supported by: Bill Kidd, Edward Mountain, Tom Arthur, Liam Kerr, Ruth Maguire, Gil Paterson.

The Ness of Brodgar looking north

Check out the Ness of Brodgar website here for more on this incredible archaeology excavation into the Neolithic in Orkney.

Distance Learning ‘Introduction to Archaeology’ Short Course at UHI Archaeology Institute

Landscape of Change: Looking across Eynhallow Sound, Orkney

A new distance learning course by the University of the Highlands and Islands Archaeology Institute examining the Historic Landscapes of the UK is now enrolling for January 2020.

The course is aimed at people who are interested in the history and archaeology of Scotland and is designed to be an introduction to the fascinating landscape of the British Isles.

Students will not only study how landscapes have changed over time but also investigate an area of landscape in detail and learn how to conduct a Desk Based Assessment (DBA) on an area of landscape of their choice – a key employment skill in archaeology.

The Military Landscape: Abandoned Jetty at Lyness Naval Base, Orkney

The course will be delivered through a series of weekly lectures given on a Monday 11:00 – 13:00 GMT via video conferencing or by attending Orkney College UHI or any of the UHI partner colleges across the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. Additional support sessions will also be made available through the Virtual Learning Environment.

WeekDateLecture
128/1/20Introduction to Historic Landscapes
24/2/20Study Archaeological & Historical Landscapes
311/2/20The Prehistoric Landscape
418/2/20The Historic Landscape: Agriculture, Enclosure &
Improvement
525/2/20The Landscape of Movement
64/3/20The Maritime Landscape
711/3/20The Development of the Urban Landscape
818/3/20Landscape & Politics: Clearances
925/3/20Finding Religious Landscapes
10 15/4/20The Landscape & Folklore
1122/4/20The Military Landscape
1229/4/20 The Modern Landscape: Heritage & Conservation

In detail…..this introductory module is designed to demonstrate the great complexity of landscapes using a series of case studies from across the British Isles and students will examine how the landscape evolution is influenced by the interplay of historical processes, physical constraints and human social, economic and political factors. The student will develop an historical perspective on the landscape, the people who have inhabited it, and those who continue to do so.

Landscape of Movement…Routes through the Highlands of Scotland

The student will also be encouraged to consider the major forces in operation in the formation of a landscape from prehistory to the present e.g. agricultural practice, afforestation, access and routeways. This module will also address the practicalities of how goods and people (and thus ideas) moved across landscapes, the constraints on those movements imposed by available technology, and the efforts made to overcome those constraints.

The Developing Urban Landscape: Inverness

Other themes to be explored in relation to the landscape including politics, religion and mythology. The student will develop a clearer vision of present-day problems and ongoing trends, and will be set thinking about concepts of “history”, “inheritance” and “heritage” – a topic that runs as a theme through the course.

For more information and to apply please e-mail Dr. Scott Timpany at scott.timpany@uhi.ac.uk

Ness of Brodgar Excavations Wins Prestigious International Award

The Ness of Brodgar excavation

The Ness of Brodgar Excavations, managed by the UHI Archaeology Institute in conjunction with the Ness of Brodgar Trust, has been selected for a 2019 Shanghai Archaeology Forum Field Discovery Award.

The archaeology site was nominated by members of the German Archaeological Institute, and the University of Cambridge for the award

Founded in 2013, Shanghai Archaeology Forum is a global initiative dedicated to promoting the investigation, protection and utilization of the world’s archaeological resources and heritage.

The biennial SAF Awards “recognize individuals and organizations that have achieved distinction through innovative, creative, and rigorous works relating to our human past, and have generated new knowledge that has particular relevance to the contemporary world and our common future.

It aims to promote excellence and innovation in archaeological research, advance public awareness and appreciation of archaeology, foster the protection and conservation of the world’s archaeological resources and heritage, and encourage international collaboration and partnerships between scholars and others from different countries”.

Site Director Nick Card discussing the next step in excavating the ‘drain’ unearthed in 2019

The Discovery Award, in particular, is made for archaeological excavations or surveys that have yielded major discoveries significantly furthering or even altering our knowledge of the human past, locally and/or globally.

This year a total of 141 nominations were received from the advisory members from every corner of the globe.

This number was whittled down to a shortlist of 40 projects. A total of 34 invited members from 18 different countries joined the selection committee to cast votes in the selection of 20 finalists, ten for each category (Field Discovery and Research Awards).

The site director Nick Card has received a fully funded invitation to the Forum in Shanghai, in December, to deliver a presentation and accept the award. Nick added “This is a huge accolade to the Ness and Orkney on the world stage. Congratulations to everyone involved: the students, volunteers, specialists and staff who have all contributed to this success – they deserve it!”.

Check out the Ness of Brodgar website here for more on this incredible archaeology excavation into the Neolithic in Orkney.

Art & Archaeology at UHI Enrolling Now for 2020

Love Art? Love Archaeology? Why not study both and get an accredited undergraduate or masters-level module at the same time!

Art and Archaeology courses ENROLLING NOW for January 2020 start!

The University of the Highlands and Islands Archaeology Institute, and the Art & Design Department, at Orkney College UHI are pleased to announce that enrolments are now open for the 2020 Art and Archaeology modules.

These are available at both undergraduate or postgraduate level and can be studied either as elective modules as part of a UHI degree or masters course, or as standalone modules for Continuing Professional Development.

Both modules provide students from a range of backgrounds with a deepened understanding of the creative, practical and vocational aspects of art and archaeology and provide the transferable skills which are currently in demand in the cultural industries and heritage sector. Either module can be taken as a distance learning student, from either a UHI learning centre, or from your home anywhere in the world*.

Exhibiting at The Pier Arts Centre, Stromness, Orkney

Art and Archaeology: Context and Practice (Level 8 / undergraduate)

This new undergraduate level 20-credit course is suitable for students who have at least 3 Scottish Highers at grade C or above / 2 A-Levels at grade C or above, or equivalent, and a strong interest in art and archaeology. This module allows students to explore the creative, practical and vocational aspects of art and archaeology in their own research and practice.

You will learn about the history of the relationship between art and archaeology, and through a series of practical assignments you will gain a deepened understanding of not only your own creative practice, but also of the processes of making and craft production in the past and how these are interpreted in the present.

Over the 14 weeks of study between January and May 2020, you will develop a portfolio of work which will lead to your final assessed project.

Detail of butterfly pattern carving from the Ness of Brodgar

Art and Archaeology: Contemporary Theory and Practice (Level 11 / postgraduate)

This 20-credit masters level course will appeal to students from a wide range of backgrounds including fine art, design and applied arts, archaeology, heritage studies, galleries and museums, and anthropology.

It provides an advanced understanding of the new interdisciplinary area of Contemporary Art and Archaeology, through discussions, seminars, and lectures on current and historical contexts and case studies. The module takes place in Semester 2 over 14 weeks (January – May 2020). Teaching is delivered via a blend of Video Conference seminar sessions, tutorials, Online teaching and resources, and self-directed study. You will document your personal creative enquiry through a reflective journal, which will form part of your final assessment, along with a research project and presentation.

Art & Archaeology workshop visit to the Stones of Stenness

We will research and explore Contemporary Art and Archaeology as a group, and together we will develop new thinking and understanding in this exciting area. There is an optional 3-day residential workshop 20-22 February 2020 in Orkney which runs at the start of this module; this is not compulsory but is strongly recommended (no additional teaching cost but students are required to fund their own travel and accommodation).

COMING SOON! MA CONTEMPORARY ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY, A UNIQUE 12/15 MONTH MASTERS COURSE, AVAILABLE TO STUDY FROM ANY LOCATION. Contact antonia.thomas@uhi.ac.uk to register your interest and for more information NOW!

Module fees for 2019-2020**
Accredited Level 11 module: £560
Accredited Level 8 module: £215

**Scottish / EU domiciled students only; please contact us for details of fees for students from the rest of the UK or outwith the EU

To apply or for more details about course content and entry requirements, please email antonia.thomas@uhi.ac.uk

Spotlight on Research: Art & Archaeology

Antonia looking at rock art at the Ness of Brodgar

Each month we aim to bring you a snapshot of research carried out at The University of the Highlands and Islands Archaeology Institute.

This month we talk to Dr. Antonia Thomas and her research on art & archaeology. 

Dr. Antonia Thomas is a Lecturer in Archaeology at the University of the Highlands and Islands Archaeology Institute based in Orkney, Scotland.
Antonia’s work focusses on Art and Archaeology in its broadest sense, from the interpretation of prehistoric art, to the intersections between contemporary art practice and the archaeological imagination.

She is interested in various aspects of visual and material culture, such as stone-carving and sculpture, photographic theory, vernacular buildings, prehistoric architecture, graffiti and mark-making, and contemporary archaeology. Antonia has published widely on these subjects and has collaborated on several transdisciplinary art and archaeology projects.

Talking to Antonia about her latest research she continues….“My two favourite subjects are Art, and, Archaeology. I feel so lucky to be able to combine these in my teaching and research! We run a variety of Art and Archaeology courses here at the UHI, from summer workshops to postgraduate modules.”

Art & Archaeology Residency at the Pier Arts Centre, Stromness

One of the best aspects of my job is getting to know new people and places. I have been really lucky this year to be invited to speak at some amazing places. I was in Aarhus, Denmark, in February discussing Neolithic art in Orkney as part of a research seminar in the Department of Archaeology. Professor Jens Andresen at Aarhus has been excavating an amazing site on the island of Bornholm, which has produced these lovely carved ‘sunstones’ – it was brilliant to be able to compare these with the carvings we have here in Orkney. And then in July, I was the guest of Renmin University in Beijing, where I presented at a seminar on Cultural Heritage. China is such a culturally rich and fascinating country, and I can’t wait to go back! I am hoping to set up some art/archaeology projects there in the near future with my Chinese colleagues.

And then in September, I was in Shetland at the Shoormal conference, to talk about the relationship between contemporary art and archaeology in Orkney. You can read a version of my paper from the conference in the latest edition of Art North magazine.

Drawing the Wreck of the Norholmen at Warbeth, Orkney

The highlight of my year, however, is always when our popular accredited Art and Archaeology stand-alone courses start up again in January and I get to meet the new students. It is always such a diverse group, and every year’s so different. And, some exciting news for the near future – we’re soon going to be launching a brand new, unique MA programme in Contemporary Art and Archaeology! As well as the opportunities for researching Art and Archaeology for an MRes, or PhD, I can’t wait to see what projects emerge.”

Selected Publications (for full list see Antonia’s UHI Research Page)

  • Thomas, A. in press. (expected 2019). ‘Duration and representation in archaeology and photography’. In L. McFadyen & D. Hicks (eds.), Archaeology and Photography: Time, Objectivity and Archive. London, Bloomsbury.
  • Thomas, A. 2019. ‘Parallel Visions: Art, Archaeology and Landscape in Orkney’. Art North 1(3), pp.28-30.
  • Thomas, A. 2019. ‘Image and process in an architectural context: decorated stonework from the Ness of Brodgar’. In A. Jones & M. Diaz-Guardamino (eds.), Making a Mark: Image and Process in Neolithic Britain and Ireland, pp.142-163. Oxford, Windgather.
  • Thomas, A., Lee, D., Frederick, U. & White, C. 2017. ‘Beyond Art/Archaeology: Research and Practice after the ‘Creative Turn’’. Journal of Contemporary Archaeology 4(2): 219-229. https://doi.org/10.1558/jca.33150 
  • Thomas, A. 2016. Art and Architecture in Neolithic Orkney: Process, Temporality and Context. UHI Archaeology Institute Research Series: 1. Oxford, Archaeopress.[download link]
  • Thomas, A. 2014. ‘Creating contexts: between the archaeological site and art gallery’. In A. Cochrane & I.A. Russell (eds.) Art and Archaeology: Collaborations, Conversations, Criticisms, pp.141-155. One World Archaeology Series, Volume 11. New York, Springer-Kluwer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8990-0_11 
  • Card, N. & Thomas, A. 2012. ‘Painting a picture of Neolithic Orkney: decorated stonework from the Ness of Brodgar’. In A. Cochrane & A. Jones (eds.), Visualising the Neolithic, pp.111-124. Oxford, Oxbow Books.

Interested in studying Art and Archaeology with us at the UHI? Email Antonia on antonia.thomas@uhi.ac.uk for more information on any of these courses.

Ancient DNA Study at The Cairns Lands Massive Whale Tale

The whalebone vessel unearthed at The Cairns

Preliminary results of genetic research into whalebone from the University of the Highlands and Islands Archaeology Institute research site at The Cairns, South Ronaldsay, Orkney, show that some very large whale species were sourced for tools, vessels and equipment during the Iron Age.

In the early Summer 2019 Drs Vicki Szabo, (Western Carolina University) and Brenna Frasier (St Mary’s University, Nova Scotia) collaborated with Dr Ingrid Mainland and Martin Carruthers at the UHI Archaeology Institute, to examine the collection of whalebone artefacts recovered from The Cairns and Mine Howe excavations, Orkney.

The aim of the research was to obtain genetic information in order to provide an assessment of what types of whalebone, or cetacean, were actually present at the sites. The research is part of a large project which is investigating the use of whale bone in Western Atlantic society over the last 1000 years. Both Brenna and Vicki are following up on work completed in Orkney during February 2018 where they examined the whales found at Cata Sand and other whalebone artefacts from Orkney Museum.

Brenna creating a sample from a whalebone artefact unearthed at The Cairns

Martin Carruthers, Site Director at The Cairns archaeology excavation said, “Initial results from the study show some of the whale bones that were uncovered at The Cairns were from very large types of whale including sperm whale and humpback. One surprise, though, is the appearance of fin whale. Fin whales are the second largest species on the planet, after the Blue Whale itself, and can grow to 27 metres in length. In particular, one very significant artefact from the Cairns site, is a very large vertebra from a fin whale, and that’s an item that was carved into a vessel or container. At the time of its discovery during the 2016 season it was found to contain a human jawbone and two neonatal lambs.”

Iron Age whalebone vessel in situ next to the entrance to The Cairns Broch

Martin continued, ”The vessel had been placed just outside the broch wall, very close to the entrance, when the broch was put out of use around the Mid-2nd Century AD. As well as the whalebone vessel and jawbone, two red deer antlers had been propped against the vessel and a very large saddle quern, a grinding stone, had been positioned against the vessel to pin it firmly in place against the broch wall. All this treatment appears to have been part of the measures employed to perform an act of closure of the broch.”

The discovery that this vessel is from a fin whale is fascinating in its own right, but there are several more Fin Whale items from the site so it should be possible to identify relationships between animals and also match bones across the site to the same animal. When more results are forthcoming from the study it will be interesting to note any concentrations of fin whale from certain areas of the site, or phases. Martin suggests that it may be possible to effectively trace multiple items from the same animal and see how a carcass was distributed across the site.

Vicki preparing one of the larger whalebone artefacts from The Cairns

Beyond the vessel, there’s a particular concentration of bone in the broch and it will also be very interesting to see what this research can reveal about the use of whalebone in this monumental Iron Age structure.

Interesting and intriguingly fin whales are also amongst the fastest whales in the sea, capable of bursts of 45KMH when hunting, or threatened, and they can dive fast and very deeply. Indeed, in the modern era, the fin whale was only really hunted in large numbers once the explosive harpoon was invented, and so it is unlikely to have been hunted in the Iron Age, but rather a stranded individual. That does not mean that other types of whale were not hunted, and the question of whether some whales were pro-actively sourced during the Iron Age remains unanswered. In time, further study of patterns of whalebone and species recognition from sites like The Cairns may shed light on this.

The Cairns Broch looking across to the North Sea, Orkney

The results discussed here are simply preliminary findings and ultimately there will undoubtedly be more exciting information, and stories, to come out of this research soon…

For background information to the research, see our blog link: https://archaeologyorkney.com/2019/06/18/extracting-dna-from-the-cairns-whalebone-collection/

Programme of Public Talks @UHI Archaeology

The Cairns Broch Excavation 2019

Dr. Ragnhild Ljosland, Lecturer at The University of the Highlands and Islands Archaeology Institute, details the public talks which are planned over the next few weeks.

The talks are open to everyone and are designed to share some of the exciting research carried out by the speakers to a large audience.

Most of the talks will be recorded or can be accessed via video conferencing so that people outside of Orkney can also access the incredible findings of these UHI collaborative research programmes.

  • Thursday 31st October 1-2 pm, Art Department, Orkney College UHI Martin Carruthers Site Director, The Cairns Broch excavation, will be speaking in the Ruination & Decay seminar series: “Ancestral piles: Decay and stabilisation in the culture of ruination at The Cairns Broch, Orkney.” Dial-in 53051@uhi.ac.uk. The seminar has been filmed and will be published shortly.
  • Wednesday 6th November, 7 pm Orkney College UHI restaurant: Olwyn Owen “Curiouser and Curiouser : the puzzling cases of Tuquoy and Scar”.
  • Thursday 14th November, 1 pm Art Department Orkney College UHI. Dial-in 53051@uhi.ac.uk A double bill in the Ruination & Decay seminar: “The sky above the shore” music performance with Peter Noble, Anna Wendy Stevenson & Dr Miriam Iorwerth. Followed by “Reconnecting with ruins: Ancestral Tourism & Heritage work in Tiree” Joanna Rodgers, UHI Centre for History.
  • Friday 15th November, 7.30 pm Warehouse Buildings, Stromness, Ragnhild Ljosland will be giving the George Mackay Brown Memorial Lecture for the GMB Fellowship. “Carve the runes: What makes runes so fascinating and why did they appeal to George Mackay Brown?” (No VC available for this lecture.)
  • Friday 29th November, 4 pm Orkney College Lecture Theatre Colleen Batey, Visiting Reader in Northern Studies, is giving the UHI Archaeology Institute Research Seminar with the title “Viking Boat Burial, from Norway to Orkney and Beyond.”

Please feel free to contact programme co-ordinator Ragnhild Ljosland if you have any questions or comments. Her e-mail address is Ragnhild.Ljosland@uhi.ac.uk

Ness of Brodgar Nominated for Award

Ness of Brodgar looking north

The University of the Highlands and Islands Archaeology Institute research excavation at the Ness of Brodgar has been nominated both by Professor Eszter Bánffy of the German Archaeological Institute, and Dr. Michael Boyd of the University of Cambridge for the prestigious 2019 Shanghai Archaeology Forum (SAF) Awards Program (Discovery Award).

Founded in 2013, Shanghai Archaeology Forum is a global initiative dedicated to promoting the investigation, protection and utilization of the world’s archaeological resources and heritage.

Trench P and Trench X at the Ness of Brodgar

The biennial SAF Awards “recognize individuals and organizations that have achieved distinction through innovative, creative, and rigorous works relating to our human past, and have generated new knowledge that has particular relevance to the contemporary world and our common future.

It aims to promote excellence and innovation in archaeological research, advance public awareness and appreciation of archaeology, foster the protection and conservation of the world’s archaeological resources and heritage, and encourage international collaboration and partnerships between scholars and others from different countries”.

Trench P at the Ness of Brodgar

The Discovery Award, in particular, is made for archaeological excavations or surveys that have yielded major discoveries significantly furthering or even altering our knowledge of the human past, locally and/or globally.

We should hopefully be notified by early November of the results.

Click here to find out more about the Ness of Brodgar excavation.